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  1. Izzy Sanabria
  2. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Images of the s | Paintings | Ukiyo E
  3. Films with screenplays by John Huston

Leichte Gebrauchsspuren, hinterer Deckel braunfleckig, einige Tafeln leicht braunfleckig. Seller Inventory DB. Published by L'Estampe originale About this Item: L'Estampe originale, Very rare and beautiful lithograph forming part of original proofs printed on vellum by Edouard Ancourt's printing house. Portrait by Toulouse-Lautrec of Aristide Bruant, a huge figure in the Belle Epoque music-hall and close friend of the artist, to whom he ordered cabaret posters that remain well-known. Singer, actor, and performer, he acquired his fame at the Chat Noir before setting up his own cabaret, the Mirliton.

In his preface to this current series of lithographs, Montorgueil is full of praise for the undisputed master of realistic song: "M. The plates are accompanied by a pamphlet by the writer Georges Montorgueil singing the praises of these establishments so wrongly looked down on, which he calls "a tonic for modern life.

The two painters here produced portraits of the most famous cabaret stars at the time, caught in the movements of their "epileptic choreographies" or the grace of their poses. He was also the creator of numerous illustrations for popular newspapers, known f. Elle s'est faite la muse des pince sans rire [. Profile portrait of Yvette Guilbert, Toulouse-Lautrec's muse and famous cabaret artist. He was also the creator of numerous illustrations for popular newspapers, known for his dynamic and incisive style. Portrait de Jeanne Avril, chanteuse de cabaret et proche amie de Toulouse-Lautrec.

A portrait of Jeanne Avril, a cabaret singer and close friend of Toulouse-Lautrec's. Georges Montorgueil, in his preface to this series of lithographs, describes her thus: "Jeanne Avril, with her slight knowing smile, spring-like as her pseudonym, lissom and serpentine, describing arabesques with the point of her little shoes playing in the surf of her skirts. Portrait de Mary Hamilton par Toulouse-Lautrec.

Portrait of Mary Hamilton by Toulouse-Lautrec. This cabaret singer is here presented in full flow, dressed in men's clothes. Lautrec was fond at this time of lithographic ink, drawing simple lines full of movement, reminiscent of Japanese ukiyo-e prints. Here is some supplemental information about the Lithograph: Poster for a Lautrec exhibition which was held at Galerie R.

Published by Spring Books, London About this Item: Spring Books, London, Remains particularly and surprisingly well-preserved overall; tight, bright, clean and strong. Subject: Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de, French paintings - Art. Copiously illustrated in full, vibrant color. Series: Spring art books. About this Item: Litografia originale in nero su carta China, mm.

Monogramma dell'artista sulla parte incisa in basso a sinistra. Litografia proveniente dall'album "Essai sur l'histoire de la lithographie en France. Album de lithographies originales", Galerie des Peintres-Graveurs, E. Frapier Editeur, Paris, Ottima, freschissima. Published by Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore Soft cover. Red, black and white illustrated wrappers. About fine. Slight darkening to the spine. About this Item: Condition: Fine.

Seller Inventory YY Two volume set with a total of pages. A comprehensive examination of "all known trial proofs, proofs, states, editions and re-editions of the prints lithographs, drypoints, monotypes and posters created between and Both books in very near fine condition in very near fine dust jackets and in a close to near fine slipcase with some bumping to the back and a scratch as well.

A lovely set. This is a heavy and oversized set and will require extra shipping. Published by Sotheby Parke Bernet, About this Item: Sotheby Parke Bernet, With the printed list of estimates loosely inserted. About this Item: Sewn as issued, pictorial wrappers, very fine. Paris Catalogue of paintings, drawings, lithographs, engravings, posters, ceramics, and iconography. Features a green background and drawn in black.

Siegel's serialized romance "Dramas of Toulouse" appearing in the April 16th edition of the magazine. Features four colors; yellow, red, black and green. The green half-tone used for the orchestra and for the ledge of the box was produced by a dotted transfer. This part of the work being done by one of the working-printers known in the trade as the reprteur after the artist had finished his drawing and his brush work on the stone. Features four colors: yellow, red, black and green. Caudieux, the singer, "as fat as a pig, dumpy, with a kind heart and a noble paunch.

Features four colors: light grey-green. This poster advertises the serialization of the memoirs of I'abbe Faure, a priest, in the French magazine, Le Matin. Features four colors; black, bistre, red and green. A poster commissioned by the subject, Aristide Bruant, a successful singer, songwriter and cabaret owner. When he began to perform at more upscale venues, he enlisted Lautrec to market his rough street persona in a matter that would appeal more to his bourgeois audience.

Lautrec utilized Bruant's signature style to cut a sparse and iconic image. Features blue-black and bright vermillion red, printed after the black, on light buff colored paper. Designed as an advertisement for the second volume of Aristide Bruant's songs. The poster, reduced, is reproduced on the cover of a booklet:" 'Aristide Bruant,' par Oscar Metenier.

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Izzy Sanabria

Dessins de Steinlen. Features four colors; yellow, red, green and black. This English singer was then appearing at the "cafe-concert des Decadents," where she sang; "I've got a little cat- I'm very find of that. Features five colors; yellow, rose-red, dark blue, grey for the drawing anf grey-black for the shoes. This poster was shown at the "Expostion d' Affiches Reims, ; a painting, done as a preliminary study was shown at the retrospective exhibition of the works of Toulouse-Lautrec, at the "Galerie Manzi et Joyant" Features a flat blue background with drawing in deep blue.

Filled with enthusiasm by the success of the first poster La Pendu , Arthur Huc, editor of "La Depeche de Toulouse," commissioned this second design from Lautrec to announce the publication of another serial,"Le Tocsin" by Jules de Gastyn. Two colors: pale blue ground in flat tint, with light brush-work in the rays of the street-lamp and on the horse.

Also dark blue brush and pencil work. Features four colors: yellow, red, green and dark blue. This placard was intended to announce the publication of an illustrated paper founded by Adolphe Willette, which did not have a long life. Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket. Continue shopping. Keywords: lithograph. United Kingdom. This tangible boundary from Britain, however, works rather effectively as visitors learn that the Arts and Crafts movement in the United States, despite its British origins, was distinctly American, and influenced by the landscape, climate, and cosmopolitan heritage of this relatively young country - America celebrated its centennial in A discussion of the usual suspects in the American movement, like Gustav Stickley and Frank Lloyd Wright, would have benefited by mention of Wallace Nutting, the famed minister-turned-furniture designer who tried to morally inspire a post Civil War generation of Americans with accurate reproductions although made with machines of colonial furnishings.

Essayist David Cathers states in the catalogue: "The use of Native American subject matter and motifs both evoked a less complex past and endeavoured to preserve something of a fast-vanishing, indigenous culture, albeit one that many Americans remained hostile to. In the exhibition, a well-chosen introductory display of Native American textiles, baskets, and photographs are paired with Rookwood, Marblehead, and Tiffany vases inspired by similar decorative motifs Tiffany had a collection of Native American material fig. American art pottery boomed in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as a craft technique and a social reform, especially for women and immigrants—Marblehead also taught ceramics as therapy to sanatorium patients.

Conspicuously absent from the display is the "Mad Potter" of Biloxi, Mississippi, George Ohr, who truly speaks to the bravado of America at the time. Notwithstanding the existence of craft communities like Brydcliffe and Roycroft, and artisans like Charles Rohlfs, who took great pride in small workshop production—and are all represented in the exhibition—American enterprises accepted the practical applications of the machine in the democratization of Arts and Craft designs.

Gustav Stickley, a household name in the American Arts and Crafts movement, embraced the ideals of Ruskin and Morris, and the belief that hand-craftsmanship was morally satisfying. He also standardized his practice with machines and remained solvent until through shrewd advertising. Stickley took advantage of the increasingly American proclivity towards a more progressive lifestyle than had existed throughout much of the Victorian era. His influential magazine, The Craftsman , provided simple, harmonious interior designs conducive to peace and calm whether implemented in the city, suburbs, or country.

These ideas materialized in the Craftsman living room, which Stickley considered a refuge for the working man and his family. The reproduced room is based on a photograph in a issue of The Craftsman that is illustrated on an accompanying didactic panel. Analogous to the distinction between city and country interpreted in the British section, an urban vs. The Viennese furnishings, such as a Kolomon Moser desk and integrated armchair, and an Otto Wagner cabinet, inlaid with sumptuous woods, brass, and mother of pearl, express a sense of elegant, modern luxury not readily apparent in material from other European countries, especially when compared to the folk crafts of Scandinavia, Hungary, and Russia figs.

In rural European countries of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, many of them in political turmoil or the transitions of independence, the Arts and Crafts movement was largely a preservation of traditional techniques and motifs that conveyed a renewed sense of national and cultural identity and heritage. The furniture designs of Norwegian cabinetmaker, Lars Kinsarvik, reflects Norway's Celtic, dragon style as those of the Finnish architect, Armas Lindgren, are based on traditional, Finnish forms with plantlike carved and applied decorations figs.

Similar direct comparisons throughout the exhibition, or as a conclusion, would have demonstrated the clear cross-cultural sharing of artistic ideas, and made the broad international scope of the British Arts and Crafts movement more discernible. Baillie Scott designed Blackwell, located in the tranquil Lake District, using motifs from natural, picturesque surroundings.

From America to Britain, and from economically developed European cities like Vienna to rural communities in Russia, the Arts and Crafts designers, craftsman, and manufacturers relied on the patronage of the wealthy. And similar to the British societies, the artist colony at Darmstadt sponsored good design in simple domestic wares. At first glance, the last section and finale, Japan, seems tangential to an exhibition based in the West, yet the Arts and Crafts principles championed in the British section have relevance in the Japanese section too: integrity of materials, honest construction methods, the intrinsic beauty of objects, and the persistence of indigenous craft methods and values.

Furthermore, the influence of Japan on Western taste cannot be underestimated nor is it forgotten in the exhibition. The American section features furnishings designed by architects Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene with sumptuous woods and constructed in exposed, hand-finished joinery based upon historic Japanese domestic woodwork figs. Similarly, a screen designed by Californian Lucia Mathews is composed of magnolias against a flat, vibrant gold ground, suggestive of Japanese screens.

The Japanese thread continues in the European section with the display of a vase and pitcher by A. Finch, decorated with Japanesque floral motifs related to native Japanese designs fig. Through the resourceful installation of a medial wall with windows on either side, the work of Mingei Folk Crafts ceramicists, textile designers, and other artisans, like Tomimoto Kenkichi and Serizawa Keisuke, can be seen in the exhibition together with the traditional Japanese crafts that motivated them fig.

Museums were founded in Japan to collect and preserve these tangible tokens of the past—similar to the trends in Scandinavia, as revealed in the exhibition catalogue. The development and industrialization of Japan in the early-twentieth century coincided with the introduction of Western designs. Model homes provided Japanese middle classes with an example of acculturation. Thought to be destroyed after World War II, it was rediscovered in British Art and Crafts designs existed in Japan partly because of Bernard Leach, a native son of Britain who celebrated unity and simplicity in designs, and spent a considerable amount of time teaching and making pots in Asia.

The audio guide closes with "…the qualities of sincerity and artistic integrity that Bernard Leach sought to express in his simple pottery forms are shared by all the artists in this exhibition.


  • Henri De Toulouse-lautrec, Lithograph.
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Together they illustrate the truly international quality of the Arts and Crafts movement and the full extent of its influence. The catalogue is organized in four parts, Britain, America, Europe, and Japan, similar to the exhibition. This arrangement offers greater opportunities of comparison in ways that are not possible within the geographically specific exhibition.

Other internationally focused catalogue essays, like "Arts and Crafts Jewelry" and "Arts and Crafts Dress" provide tight frameworks of revival designs and techniques that could have been used to present the jewelry and dress in the exhibition more effectively rather than separated in British and European Vienna sections.

Despite the fact that the European section of the exhibition, which covers considerable territory, has a disproportionate number of objects compared to the other sections, it is given its due justice in the catalogue. In addition to chapters on Vienna, Finland, Norway, Russia, and Germany all represented in the exhibition , the catalogue is augmented by discussions of the Polish, Czech, and Dutch Arts and Crafts movements.

As suggested in its title, International Arts and Crafts provides a compelling argument that the Arts and Crafts movement, initiated in nineteenth-century Britain, was an international phenomenon with widespread impact into the mid-twentieth century. The exhibition demonstrates how, from Britain to America, Europe to Japan, city to county, the Arts and Crafts movement matured in these respective regions of the world during moments of rapid social change and development, and often resulted in art that expressed national identity.

Such a broad approach to the topic of Art and Crafts—both chronologically and geographically—begs the question of what other countries or continents, if any, could have adopted similar ideologies in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. While a comparison of the two exhibitions requires a separate review, there appears to be remarkably little redundancy in the exhibition checklists, and a sensitive placement of venues; the LACMA show opened in Los Angeles, toured at the Milwaukee Art Museum, and closes at the Cleveland Museum of Art.

The exhibition International Arts and Crafts convincingly shows that Arts and Crafts provided roots to modernism through establishing a profound sensitivity to materials, designs, and forms—important from the Art Nouveau to the Art Deco. The same concepts resonate in other twentieth-century style movements, such as Scandinavian modern, and a breadth of contemporary craft processes, like wood turning, glass blowing, and pottery.

Can we really define an end date to the Arts and Crafts movement if its system of values still hold true into the twenty-first century? Essentially the Arts and Crafts principles of good design and workmanship, initiated in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, are relevant to how we judge the quality of objects today. Photos courtesy of the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.

Fig 1. Entrance to main gallery with vitrines of Japoniste work. Both of these seminal projects were led by Gabriel Weisberg and assisted, as always, by his partner in life and in research, Yvonne. It is in great part due to their scholarship and perseverance that Japonisme, and now Siegfried Bing, are universally recognized as major factors in not only French art of the second half of the nineteenth century, but in much of the art of the rest of Europe and of the United States as well. Fig 2. Works on display in Bing's Salons. Fig 3. In , Paris documented further the great impact that the art of Japan had on nineteenth-century art in France with the Grand Palais' exhibition, Le Japonisme , which subsequently traveled to Tokyo.

The current exhibition, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, The Bing Empire , finally pays homage in Europe to this important art dealer, connoisseur and entrepreneur, and in so doing, gives an abbreviated history of Japonisme while simultaneously documenting the vital role Bing played in the acquiring, dissemination and codification of Japanese art. The publication and exhibition are expanded versions of Weisberg's Smithsonian Bing project.

Fig 4. Fig 5. Detail of works by Edvard Munch including Madonna , center. Fig 6. Photomural of Bing's L'Art Nouveau gallery with advertisements and exhibition announcements installed over photomural. Weisberg's chapters are well reinforced and complemented by those of the other authors. Christine Shimizu documents the actual kinds of Japanese art that, inspired by the World's Fair, Bing acquired early on such as bronzes, ceramics and prints; she also discusses the evolution in France of an accurate history and knowledge of Japanese art.

Even if one owns the Bing publication, which includes many of the works reproduced in The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, The Bing Empire , as an expanded and elegantly designed version, the current catalogue is a must. Fig 7. But what about the exhibition itself? When he selected work by painters who regularly exhibited at the official annual Salons, such as Albert Besnard and Jacques Emile-Blanche, he chose ones that were either atypical, such as the large, decorative three-panel Gauguinesque landscape by Besnard, or portraits by Blanche depicting Aubrey Beardsley and Fritz Thaulow and Family.

Fig 8. Yet, as the exhibition well demonstrates, Bing was at his best when he concentrated on the decorative arts, not only in the buying and selling of Japanese wares, but in the selection of western crafts as he formulated his concept of art nouveau. For example, his friendship with Frank Brangwyn allowed him to include two large allegorical kitsch paintings, Dance and Music , in the opening exhibition of his gallery; the former depicts two academic-style delineated, topless, full-breasted, smiling young Caucasian women dancing within a Japanese-inspired decorative landscape while the latter places Pan-like figures playing their flutes in a similar inappropriate landscape.

However, Brangwyn's purely decorative stencil design for the exterior of Bing's Gallery and, at the end of the century, his designs for wool carpets based on flora motifs, meshed with Bing's predilection for decorative Japanese motifs refashioned in the work of American, English, and French designers such as Tiffany, Liberty, and Georges de Feure. Fig 9. Fig At the Van Gogh Museum, the first exhibition hall was divided physically from left to right [coming from the entrance and walking to the opposite end] into essentially three distinct long exhibition areas which served to invoke the look and feel of Bing's Art Nouveau Galerie and to divide the display into comprehensible components: all along the left-hand wall were large, sepia photo-blowups of the exterior and interior of Bing's Galerie; the long, wide central space contained two horizontal rows of vitrines, perpendicular to and divided by, a series of temporary walls; the vitrines contained both, Japanese and western art objects fig.

The long, arched right-hand wall displayed the selection of paintings shown at the Galerie Art Nouveau, either in one of the Salons or a monographic exhibition. The viewer was first introduced to select examples of antique Japanese art combs, sword guards, silk embroideries, incense burners, sake bottles, tea bowls, bronze and ceramic vases, an ink painting by Kitagawa Utamaro, prints by Katsushika Hokusai, Utagawa Kuniyoshi, and Utagawa Hiroshige,.

The thee-dimensional objects were displayed in tall, multi-shelf, rectangular vitrines similar to those used by Bing at his gallery fig. These objects, placed into context with Japoniste advertising etchings by Henri Somm, Jules Adeline's etching of his Japanese doll, Mikika, and examples of Le Japan artistique , set the stage for the exhibition's presentation of the Galerie Art Nouveau and of Bing's emphasis on Japanese aesthetics as the primary source for a new art in Europe.

European japonisme has commanded attention during the past thirty-five years. Beginning in the s, Dr. Gabriel Weisberg opened the field with his wide-ranging analyses, capping them in with a thorough annotated bibliography of scholarly work on japonisme that continues to be the point of embarkation for young scholars. In contrast, outside of James McNeill Whistler, studied by American and French as well as British writers, there has been a paucity of scholarly studies of the influence of Japanese art in Britain during the last half of the nineteenth century.

This relatively new subject for scholars boasts studies of E. Toshio Yokoyama's ground breaking publication, Japan in the Victorian Mind London, , explores the social effects of Japanese art and artifacts on English culture. There is wide room for studies of textiles, tableware, furniture, and interior design, fashion design, children's book illustration, graphic art, painting, and decorative art.

British collectors of Japanese applied arts and those who purchased Japanese-influenced art and objects merit their own monographs. Artists have been the prime object of scholarship, and Ayako Ono has studied four artists who worked in England: Whistler, Mortimer Menpes, an Australian, George Henry and Edward Atkinson Hornel, the latter two part of the artistic group known as the Glasgow Boys.

Her purpose is "to consider how western artists understood and accepted Japanese art as a source of inspiration," a task she accomplishes primarily by examining their paintings xvi. Ono's first chapter uses the lens of exhibitions of Japanese art and objects in Britain to focus on the manner in which a taste for this radically different art was built, and her brief survey of English artists and craftsmen who adopted facets of Japanese style and technique includes enough names and brief descriptions of English and Scottish artists, craftsmen, and merchants to whet the palate for more studies.

Chapter Two belongs to a study of Whistler's japonisme , ground well trodden. But Ono brings a fresh—because it is a Japanese—perspective to this material, and her deft analysis considers what Japanese techniques Whistler tried to adapt in his paintings and the degree to which he succeeded. Her most valuable contribution in this chapter, however, is her examination of Whistler's inclusion of Japanese objects in his work, and her relation of these objects to his "attempt to produce subjectless paintings" Among the artists Whistler influenced was Mortimer Menpes, and Chapter Three explores the combined influence of Whistler and European artists on one hand, and on the other, Menpes' encounter with Japanese art during his trips to that country.

Like Whistler, Menpes did not understand Japanese painting techniques. Consequently, he merely imported trappings of Japanese art into his realistic paintings and graphics. But back in London after his second trip to Japan, he adventurously built a studio and home according to what he perceived as Japanese style, and decorated it with Japanese fittings. In this fascinating chapter, Ono discusses Menpes' studio-house; his acquaintance with the prominent Japanese painter Kawanabe Kyosai; as well as Menpes' photographs of Japanese subjects, and their relation to his subsequent work.

Like Menpes, they were interested enough in Japanese art to take a joint trip to Japan where they collected over souvenir photographs for export of the type called Yokohama Shashin. In varying degrees these scenes of daily life influenced their art, Henry gaining a "genuine awareness of Japanese colour," while Hornel effectively used a "European manner to create his own original style when treating Japanese subject matter" , There are, in addition to these chapters, ten appendices that document the furnishings of Whistler's home on Tite Street; his collections of oriental porcelain, and blue and white china; Raphael Collin's flavorlessly translated recollections of the great Japanese art dealer, Tademasa Hayashi; a transcription of a supposed Japanese citizen's view of Commodore Perry's arrival in Japan; the London exhibition of pieces of Menpes's work; the show of his collection of works by Whistler; and the Yokohama Museum's forty-nine etchings by Menpes.

Rounding out this group are Hornel's 9 February lecture on Japanese life and art, the 20 June interview of Henry on the same subject, a letter to Hornel, and a glossary of terms. There are interesting sections of this book although the group of artists examined is somewhat eccentric. As mentioned above, Whistler has been much studied and his relation to Japanese art has been far from ignored; articles and books detailing his relation to Japanese prints continue to be published. This book would have been the place for Ono's particular contribution— the Japanese reaction to Whistler.

Why is that subject omitted? Even the mention of a lack of contemporary Japanese sources would not merely have been helpful, it would chart the way for further studies.


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Furthermore, Whistler and Menpes worked in London, while Henry and Hornel were in Glasgow, but Ono presents no rationale for her selection of these four artists. Were there links among the four? Any correspondence? Were there other artists in the United Kingdom who came under the Japanese influence?

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Images of the s | Paintings | Ukiyo E

Was it some other compelling, but unmentioned, reason? Or was it merely her residency at the Whistler Center that led to her choice? Moreover, while Ono presents much information, she is not guided by some of the larger questions. For example, was there a difference between Whistler and Menpes and the Scottish artists in their acceptance of Japanese influence—in other words, regional differences?

How did the shifts in the English attitude to things Japanese during the last half of the century affect their views? What do sales of these four artists' work tell us about japonisme in Britain? What part did Japanese artists working in Britain play in the phenomenon of japonisme? Most important is the lack of discussion of Japanese sources. With the exception of Whistler, these westerners met Japanese artists and photographers on their trips to Japan, as Ono documents. Pettenkofen lingers with the petty artisan and the solitary sempstress.

Menzel delights in momentary impressions and quivering life; Pettenkofen in rest and solitude. In the former every one is thinking and talking and on the alert; in the latter every one is yawning or asleep. If Menzel paints a waggon, the driver cracks his whip and one hears the team rattling over the uneven pavement; in Pettenkofen the waggon stands quietly in a narrow lane, the driver enjoys a 52 midday rest, and an enervating, sultry heat broods overhead. Menzel has a love for men and women with excitement written on their faces; Pettenkofen avoids painting character, contenting himself with the reproduction of simple actions at picturesque moments.

The Berlin artist is epigrammatically sharp; the Viennese is elegiac and melancholy. They have only one thing in common: neither has found disciples; they are not culminating peaks in Berlin or Vienna art so much as boulders wedged into another system. Whilst the realistic movement in both towns was confined to particular masters, Munich had once again the mission of becoming a guiding influence. Here all the tendencies of modern art have left the most distinct traces, all movements were consummated with most consistency.

The heroes of Piloty followed the divinities of Cornelius, and these were in turn succeeded by the Tyrolese peasants of Defregger, and amid all this difference of theme one bond connected these works: for interesting subject was the matter of chief importance in them, and the purely pictorial element was something subordinate.

The efforts of the seventies had for their object the victory of this pictorial element. It was felt that the task of formative art did not consist in narrative, but in representation, and in representation through the most sensuous and convincing means which stood at its disposal. A renewed study of the old masters made this recognition possible. Up to this time the most miserable desolation had also reigned over the province of the artistic crafts. The German Renaissance, which research had been hitherto neglected, was discovered afresh.

The national form of art of the German Renaissance was taken up everywhere with a proud consciousness of patriotism: here, it was thought, was a panacea. Those who followed the artistic crafts declared open war against everything pedestrian and tedious. Lorenz Gedon in particular—in union with Franz and Rudolf Seitz—was the soul of the movement. With his black, curly hair, his little, fiery, dark eyes, his short beard, his negligent dress, and his two great hands expert in the exercise of every description of art, he had himself something of the character of an old German stone-cutter.

His manner of expressing himself corresponded to this appearance. In every thing it was original, saturated with his own personal conception of the world. As the son of a dealer in old pictures and curiosities, he was familiar with the old masters from his childhood, and followed them in the method of his study. He was far from confining himself to one branch. And, at the same time, the temperament of a collector was united in him with that of an artist in an entirely special way. Rusty old trellises of wrought iron slanted in front of the windows, and in the house itself the most precious objects, which artists ten years before had passed without heed, stood in masses together.

As Gedon was taken from his work when he was forty his artistic endeavour never got beyond efforts of improvisation, but the impulse which he gave was very powerful. Through his initiative the whole province of the artistic crafts was brought under observation from a pictorial point of view. The bald Philistine style of decoration gave way and a blithe revel of colour was begun. The great carnival feasts arranged by him on the model of the Renaissance period are an important episode in the history of culture in Munich, and have contributed in no unessential manner to the refinement of taste in the toilette of women.

The course which was run by this movement in the following years is well known, and it is well known how the imitation of the German Renaissance soon became as wearisome as in the beginning it had been attractive. After it had been a little overdone another step was taken, and from the Renaissance people went to the baroque period, and soon afterwards the rococo period followed. In these days sobriety has taken the place of this fever for ornamentation, and the mania for style has resulted in a surfeit, a weariness and a desire for simplicity and quietude. Nevertheless the beneficial influence of the movement on the general elevation of taste is undeniable, and indirectly it was of service to painting.

In rooms where the owner was the only article of the inventory repugnant to the conception of style, only those pictures were admitted which had been executed in the exact manner of the old masters. Amongst the costume painters spread over all Germany, the experts in costume, working in Munich during the seventies, form a really artistic race of able painters who were peculiarly sensitive to colour.

They were the historians of art, the connoisseurs of colour in the ranks of the painters. Piloty did not satisfy them; they buried themselves in the study of old masters with a delicately sensitive appreciation of them; they began to mix soft, luxuriant, and melting colours upon their palettes, and to feel the peculiar joy of painting.

Compared with earlier works, their pictures are 57 like rare dainties. They no longer recognised the end of their calling, as the genre painters had done, in a one-sided talent for characterisation, but tried once more to lay chief weight upon the pictorial and artistic appearance of their pictures.


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They were conscious of a presentiment that there were higher spheres of art than the commonplace humour of genre painting, and this recognition had a very wide bearing. Pictorial point took the place of narrative humour. That sumptuous, healthy artist of such pictorial ability, Diez , the Victor Scheffel of painting, stands at the head of the group. His pictures had an unrivalled delicacy of tone, and could certainly hang beside their Dutch models in the Pinakothek without losing anything by such proximity.

Through the windows hung with thin curtains the warm, quiet daylight falls into the room, glancing on the clean boards of the floor, on the polished tops of the tables, the white pages of the books, and the blond and brown hair of the children, playing round it like a golden nimbus. Another sunbeam streams through the door, which is not entirely closed, and quivers over the floor in a bright and narrow strip of light.

The intimate representation of peaceful scenes of modest life, the entirely pictorial representation of peaceful and congenial events, has taken the place of the adventures dear to genre painting. Old gentlemen with a glass of beer and a clay pipe, servant-girls peeling potatoes in the kitchen, pupils at the cloister sitting over their books in the library, drinkers, smokers, and dicers—such were the quiet, passive, and silent figures of his later pictures.

The mild sunshine breaks in and plays over them. Light clouds of tobacco smoke float in the air. Everything is homely and pleasant, touched with a breath of pictorial charm, comfortable warmth, and poetic fragrance. A hundred years hence his works will be sold as flawlessly delicate and genuine old Dutch pictures. Holmberg became the historian of cardinals. In Fritz August Kaulbach , the most versatile of the group in his adoption of various manners, the essence of this whole tendency is to be found.

He did not belong to the specialists who restricted themselves, in a one-sided fashion, to the imitation of the Flemish or the Dutch masters, but appeared like old Diterici, Proteus-like, now in one and now in another mask; and, whether he assumed the features of Holbein, Carlo Dolci, Van Dyck, or Watteau, he had the secret of being invariably graceful and chic. Many of them held a lute and stood amid a spring landscape, before a streamlet, or a silver-birch, such as Stevens delighted in painting ten years previously. At that time Fritz August Kaulbach, with greater softness in his treatment, occupied in Germany the place which Florent Willems had occupied in Belgium.

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He did not find in himself the plan for a new edifice in erecting his palace of art, but built according to any plans that came in his way; he simply chose from all existing forms the most graceful, the most elegant, the most precious, culled from their beauties only 64 the flowers, and bound them into a tasteful bouquet.

In his modern portraits of women, which in recent years have been his chief successes, he placed himself between Van Dyck and the English. Of course, a really chic painter of women, like Sargent, is not to be thought of in this connection; but for Germany these portraits were in exceedingly fine taste, had an interesting Kaulbachian trace of indifferent health, and breathed an odeur de femme which found very wide approval. After all, these pictures will have little that is novel for an historian of the next century. As old masters called back to life, they have enriched the history of art, as such, by nothing novel.

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Yet, in replacing superficial imitations by imitations which were excellent and congenial, they have nevertheless advanced the history of art in the nineteenth century in another way. By the labour of his life each one of them helped to make a place in Germany for the art of oil-painting, which had been forgotten under the influence of Winckelmann and Carstens, and in this sense their works were very important stations, as one might say, on the great thoroughfare of art. Through systematic imitation of the finest old masters, the Munich school had in a comparatively short time regained the appreciation of colour and treatment which had so long been lost.

These views had been altogether renounced, and a decade of strenuous work had been devoted to the extirpation of all such defects. Such an achievement was sufficiently great, and sufficiently important and gratifying. This last resuscitation of the old masters was capable of being turned into a bridge leading to new regions. A feeling arose that the limit had been reached, and it arose in those very men who had advanced furthest in pictorial accomplishment, adapting and making their own all the ability of the old masters.

Painters believed that they had learnt enough of technique to be able to treat subjects from modern life in the spirit of these old masters, not handling them any longer as laboriously composed genre pictures, but as real works of art. And a group of realists came forward as they had done in France, and began to seek truth with scientific rigour and an avoidance of any kind of anecdotic by-play. The greatest pupil of the old masters, Franz Lenbach , stands in a close and 66 most important relationship with these endeavours of modern art, through some of his youthful works.

The public has accustomed itself to think of him only as a portrait painter, and he is justly honoured as the greatest German portraitist of the century. But posterity may one day regard it as a special favour of the gods that Lenbach should have been born at the right time, and that his progress to maturity fell in the greatest epoch of the century. His gallery of portraits has been called an epic in paint upon the heroes of our age. The greatest historical figures of the century have sat to him, the greatest conquerors and masters in the kingdom of science and art.

Nevertheless this gallery would be worthless to posterity if Lenbach had not had at his disposal one quality possessed by none of his immediate predecessors, a sacred respect for nature. At a time when rosy tints, suave smiles, and idealised drawing were the requirements necessary in every likeness, at a time when Winterhalter painted great men, not as they were, but as, in his opinion, they ought to have been—without reflecting that God Almighty knows best what heads are appropriate for great men—Lenbach appeared with his brusque veracity of portraiture.

That alone was an achievement in which only a man of original temperament could have succeeded. If a portrait painter is to prevail with society a peculiar combination of faculties is necessary, apart from his individual capacity for art. Lenbach had not only an eye and a hand, but likewise elbows and a tongue which placed him hors concours. He could be as rude as he was amiable, and as deferential as he was proud; half boor and half courtier, at once a great artist and an accomplished faiseur , he succeeded in doing a thing which has brought thousands to ruin—he succeeded in forcing upon society his own taste, and setting genuine human beings of strong character in the place of the smiling automatons of fashionable painters.

And what makes this so invaluable is that his greatness depends really less upon artistic qualities than upon his being a highly gifted man who understands the spirit of others. It is not merely artistic technique that is essential in a portrait, but before everything a psychical grasp of the subject.

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No artist, says Lessing, is able to interpret a power more highly spiritual than that which he possesses himself. It even makes him seem greater than most foreign portrait painters. One should not look at a dozen Bonnats together; a single one arrests attention by the plastic treatment of the person, but if you see several at the same time all the figures have this same plastic character, all of them have the same pose, and they all seem to have employed the same tailor.

Lenbach has no need of all that characterisation by means of accessories in which Bonnat delights. He only paints the eyes with thoroughness, and possibly the head; but these he renders with a psychological absorption which is only to be found amongst modern artists, perhaps in Watts. In a head by Lenbach there glows a pair of eyes which burn themselves into you.

The countenance, which is the first 68 zone around them, is more or less—generally less—amplified; the second zone, the dress and hands, is either still less amplified, or scarcely amplified at all. The portrait is then harmonised in a neutral tone which renders the lack of finish less obvious. In this sketchy treatment and in his striking subjectivity Lenbach is the very opposite of the old masters. Holbein, and even Rubens—who otherwise sets upon everything the stamp of his own personality—characterised their figures by a reverent imitation of every trait given in nature.

They produced, as it were, real documents, and left it to the spectator to interpret them in his own way. Lenbach, less objective, and surrendering himself less absolutely to his subject, emphasises one point, disregards another, and in this way conjures up the spirit by his faces, just as he sees it.

It may be open to dispute which kind of portraiture is the more desirable; but Lenbach, at any rate, has now forced the world to behold its great men through his eyes. He has given them the form in which they will survive. No one has the same secret of seizing a fleeting moment; no one turned more decisively away from every attempt at idealising glorification or at watering down an individual to a type.

Some of his Bismarck portraits, as well as his last pictures of the old Emperor Wilhelm, will always stand amongst the greatest achievements of the century in portraiture. In the one portrait is indestructible power, as it were the shrine built for itself by the mightiest spirit of the century; in the other the majesty of the old man, already half alienated from the earth, and glorified by a trace of still melancholy, as by the last radiance of the evening sun.

Stretched on his back, he lies in the high grass where flowers grow thickly, and looks up while butterflies and dragon-flies flutter through the dusty air of a Roman summer day. Such a frank, an audacious, naked realism, breaking away from everything traditional in its representation of fact, was something entirely novel and surprising in Germany in the year Up to this time no one had seen a fragment of nature depicted with such unqualified veracity. The tanned shepherd lad, with his naked sunburnt feet, covered by a dark crust of mire from the damp earth, seemed to be lying there in the flesh, plastically thrown into relief by the glowing midday sun.

After the sixties the influence of Courbet began to be directly felt. He did not follow Courbet, however, in his subjects. Pictures painted with singular sureness of hand were executed by him during the few years that he yet had to live—portraits of dogs, landscapes of a flaming glow of colour, single figures of red-haired Bacchantes and laughing flower-girls, old men dying, and charming fairy pictures. The nearer he came to his death the more his powers of work seemed to increase.

The most remarkable ideas came into his head. He drew, and painted without intermission designs which had occupied him for years. But the impulse which he had given in more than one direction had further issues. Wilhelm Leibl, son of the conductor of music in the cathedral, was born at Cologne on 23rd October At Munich he entered the studio of Arthur van Ramberg , that unjustly forgotten master who, both by his own work and by his activity as a teacher, exercised upon the younger Munich school a far healthier influence than Piloty.

Ramberg was a modern man, was always eager to come into immediate contact with life and break the fetters of tradition which hung everywhere upon that generation. At a time when others held nothing but the smock-frock fit for representation, Ramberg painted the fashionable 72 modern costume of women. And when others devoted themselves to clumsy genre episodes, he created songs without words that were full of fine reserve, nobility, and delicate feeling. The young student from Cologne was thus saved, in the beginning, from occupying himself with history, and he had no need to addict himself to narrative genre painting, since his entire organisation preordained him to painting pure and simple.

Wilhelm Leibl was in those days a handsome fellow, with powerful limbs and shining brown eyes. He was realism incarnate—rather short, but strongly made, and with a frame almost suggesting a beast of burden, broad in the chest, high-shouldered, and bull-necked. His arms were thick and his feet large. His gait was slow, heavy, and energetic, and he made with his arms liberal gestures which took up a good deal of room.

He had not the fiery spirit of Courbet, being more prosaic, sober, and deliberate, but he resembled him both in appearance and in the artistic faculty of eye and hand. Such men extract the most remarkable things from painting. Even his first picture, exhibited in , and representing his two fellow-pupils Rudolf Hirth and Haider looking at an engraving, had a soft, full golden harmony, which left all the products of conventional genre painting far behind it, and came into direct competition with the refined works of the Dutch painter Michael Swert.

His second picture, a portrait of Frau Gedon, made an impression even in Paris by its Rembrandtesque beauty of tone, and was awarded there in the gold medal which the judges had not ventured to give him the year before at Munich, because he was still an Academy pupil. The Munich Exhibition gave at that time an opportunity for learning the importance of French art upon a scale previously unknown. Over four hundred and fifty pictures were accessible, and the works of the smooth, conventional historical painters were the minority.

Troyon was to be seen there, and Millet and Corot. But Courbet, to whose works the committee had devoted an entire room, was chiefly the hero, and one over whom there was much conflict. The official circle greeted the master of Ornans with the same hoot of indignation which had been accorded him in France. But for Leibl he became an adored and marvellous ideal. How false and paltry seemed the whole school of Piloty, with its rose-coloured insipidity and its conventional bloom of the palette, when set 74 against the downright veracity and the masterly painting of these works!

In the same year he went to Paris, special occasion for the journey being given by a commission for a portrait which he received from the Duc Tascher de la Pagerie. Leibl became the apostle of Courbet in Germany, and in his outward life the German Millet. Back once more in Bavaria, he migrated in to Grasolfingen, then to Schondorf on the Ammersee, then to Berbling near Aibling, and in to Aibling itself; he became a peasant, and, like Millet, he painted pictures of peasants.

The poetic and biblical, the august and epical bias which characterises the works of Millet, is not to be expected in Leibl. A Rembrandtesque feeling for space, the great line, the simplification, the intellectual restraint from anecdotic triviality of form, are the things which constitute his style. Leibl is at his best when he buries himself with delight in the hundred little touches of nature. He triumphs when he has to paint the faces of old peasant women, full of wrinkles, and furrowed with care; the ruddy cheeks of girls, sparkling in all their natural rustic freshness; figured dresses, the material and texture of which are clearly recognisable; flowered silk kerchiefs worn round the 75 neck, coarse woollen bodices, and heavy hobnail shoes.

He is to Millet what Holbein is to Michael Angelo. Nor can he be called an artist of intimate feeling in the sense in which the Scandinavians are amongst the moderns. In Viggo Johansen the painter disappears; what he paints has not the effect of a picture, but of a moment of existence, a memory of something clear and familiar—something which has been lived and seen, but not fashioned with deliberate intention. His figures are like the sudden appearance of actual persons, spied upon, as if one were looking through the window into a strange room under cover of night.

One feels that there is no occasion to pay the artist a compliment; but one would like to sit in such a warm, cosy room, impregnated with tobacco smoke, to inhale the fine cloud of steam issuing from the tea-kettle, to hear the water bubbling and humming upon the glimmering fire. A communicative spirit, something which touches the heart and sets one dreaming, is precisely what is not expressed in them. The spectator invariably thinks, in the first place, of the astonishing ability, the incredible patience, which went to the making of them.

And with all their photographic fidelity he is, moreover, conscious that the painter himself was less concerned in seizing the poetry of a scene, the instantaneous charm of an impression of nature, than in forcing into the foreground particular evidences of his technical powers which he has reserved for display. Wilhelm Leibl is a good workman, like Courbet, a man of fresh, vigorous, and energetic nature and robust health, very material, and at times matter-of-fact and prosaic.

Painting is as natural to him as breathing and walking are to the rest of us. He goes his way like an ox in the plough, steadily and without tiring, without vibration of the nerves, and without the touch of poetry. He goes where his instinct leads him and paints with a muscular flexibility of hand whatever appeals to his eye or suits his brush.

But he has, too, all the capacity and all the boundless veneration for nature of these old artists. Even Defregger had observed peasant life altogether from a narrative and anecdotic point of view. In Leibl this narrative genre has been overcome. Pains are taken to avoid the slightest movement of the figures. Whilst all his predecessors were romance writers, Leibl is a painter. His themes—simple scenes of daily life—are a matter of indifference; the beauty of his pictures lies in their technique. They are works of which it may be said that every attempt to give an impression of them in words is useless, for they have not proceeded from delight in anecdotic theme, but, as in the good periods of art, from the discipline of the sense for colour and from an eminent capacity for drawing: they are pictures in which mere interest in subject is lost in the consideration of their artistic value, while the matter of what is represented is entirely thrown into the background by the manner in which it is carried out.

The chief aim of the historical as of the genre painters had been to draw a fluent cartoon based upon single studies, to mix the colours nicely upon the palette, lay them upon the canvas according to the rules, blend them and let them dry, so as then to attain the proper harmony of colour by painting over again and finally glazing. As yet no German had, in the same measure, what the painter calls qualities, and even in France two apparently heterogeneous faculties have seldom been united in one master in the same measure as they were in Leibl: a broad and large technique, a bold alla prima painting, and, on the other hand, a joy in work of detail with a fine brush, such as was known by Quentin Matsys, the smith of Antwerp.

What would Knaus, the king of illustration and the ruler over the province of vignettes, have made out of this theme! By a literary evasion he would have subordinated the interest of the picture to his ideas. One would have learnt what it is that peasants read, and received instruction as to their political allegiance to party and their offices and honours in the village: that would be the magistrate, that the smith, and that the tailor.

In Leibl there are true and simple peasants, who, by way of relaxation from the toil of the week, listen stupidly and indifferently to the reading of a Sunday paper, in which one of them is endeavouring to discover the village news and the price of crops. They are harsh-featured and common, but they have been spared theatrical embellishment and impertinent satire; they are not artistically grouped, though they sit there in all the rusticity of their physiognomies, and all the angularity of their attitudes, without polish or Sunday state.

Leibl renders the reality without altering it, but he renders it fully and entirely. The fidelity to nature held fast on the canvas surpassed everything that had hitherto been seen, and it was gained, moreover, by the soundest and the simplest means. He took a further step in the direction of truth when he made a transition from the Dutch towards the old German masters.

After he had, in his earlier productions, worked very delicately at the tone of his pictures, and, for a time, had particularly sought to attain specific effects of chiaroscuro , attaching himself to Rembrandt, he took up an independent position in his conception of colour, painting everything not as one of the old masters might have seen it, but as he had seen it himself. All the tricks of painting and sleights of virtuosity were despised, special emphasis being scarcely laid upon pictorial unity of effect. Everything was simple and true to nature, and had a sincerity which is not to be surpassed.

From that date Leibl was 79 established—at any rate in the artistic circles of Munich—as the greatest German painter of his time. That Leibl painted the picture without sketching for himself an outline, that he began with the eye of the peasant girl and painted bit by bit, like fragments of a mosaic, was a feat of technique in which there were few to imitate him. They were beside themselves with delight over such unheard-of strength, power, and delicacy of modelling, the fusion of colour suggesting Holbein, and the intimate study of nature.

They perpetually discovered new points that came upon them as a surprise, and many felt as Wilkie did when he sat in Madrid before the drinkers of Velasquez, and at last rose wearily with a sigh. Leibl did for Germany what the pre-Raphaelites did for England. Men and women were represented with astonishing pains just as they sat and suffered themselves to be painted. He was determined to give the whole, pure truth, and he gave it; that, and nothing more and nothing less. He reproduced nature in her minutest traits and in her finest movements, bringing the imitative side of art to the highest perfection conceivable.

Leibl once more taught the German painters to go into detail, and led them constantly to hold nature as the only source of art; and that has been the beginning of every renaissance. His works were pictorially the most complete expression of the aims of the Munich school in colour. As a representative of the efforts of the decade from he is as typical as Cornelius for the art of the thirties, Piloty for that of the fifties, and as Liebermann became later as a representative of the efforts of the eighties.

Courbet and Ribot for France, Holman Hunt and Madox Brown for England, Stevens for Belgium, Menzel, Lenbach, and Leibl for Germany, are the great names of modern Realism, the names of the men who subjected modern life to art, and subjected art to the nineteenth century. One point, however, the question of colour, still remained unsolved: as the preceding generation took their form, so these painters took their colour, not from nature, but from the treasury of old art. Courbet announced it as his programme to express the manners, ideas, and aspect of his age—in a word, to create living art.

He certainly painted modern stone-breakers, but it was in the tone of saints of the Spanish school of the seventeenth century. His pictures of artisans have the odour of the museum. The home of his men and women is not the open field of Ornans, but that room in the Louvre where hang the pictures of Caravaggio.

Alfred Stevens made a great stride by painting modern Parisiennes. Whereas the costume picture had up to his time sought the truth of the old masters only in the matter of the skirts which the fashion of their age prescribed, Stevens was the first to dress his women in the garb of , just as Terborg painted his in the costume of and not of But the very atmosphere in which the Parisienne of the nineteenth century lived is no longer that in which the women of de Hoogh moved. The whole of life is brighter.

The studios in which pictures are painted are brighter, and the rooms in which they are destined to hang. The old masters paid special attention to these conditions of illumination. The golden harmony of the Italian Renaissance came into being from the character of the old cathedrals furnished with glass windows of divers colours; the half-light of 82 the Dutch corresponded to the dusky studios in which painters laboured, and the gloomy, brown-wainscoted rooms for which their pictures were destined.

The nineteenth century committed the mistake even here of regarding what was done to meet a special case as something absolute. Rooms had long become bright when studios were artificially darkened, and artists still sought, by means of coloured windows and heavy curtains, to subdue the light, so as to be able to paint in tones dictated by the old masters. Stevens shed over a modern woman, a Parisienne , sitting in a drawing-room in the Avenue de Jena, the light of Gerard Dow, without reflecting that this illumination, filtered through little lattice-windows, was quite correct in Holland during the seventeenth century, but no longer proper in the Paris of , in a salon where the windows had great cross-bars and clear white panes which were not leaded.

It is chiefly this that makes his pictures untrue, lending them an old Flemish heaviness, something earthy, savouring of the clay, and not in keeping with the fresh fragrance of the modern Parisienne. Her modernity is seen through the yellowish glass which the old Flemish masters seemed to hold between Stevens and his model.

Considered as a separate personality Ribot , too, is a great artist; his works are masterpieces. Yet when young men spoke of him as the last representative of the school of cellar-windows there was an atom of truth in what they said. Like Courbet, he continued the art of galleries. The master of a style and yet the servant of a manner, he marks the summit of a tendency in which the great traditions of Frans Hals and Ribera were once more embodied. When he paints subjects resembling the themes of these old masters he is as great as they are, as genuine and as much a master of style; but as soon as he turns to other subjects the imitative mannerist is revealed.

Even things as tender and unsubstantial as the flowers of the field seem as if they were made of wax. His disdain for what is light, fluent, and fickle, like air and water, is evident in his sea-pieces. His steamers plough their way through a greyish-black sea beneath a thick 83 black stormy sky, as though through grey deserts.

Nature quivering in the air and bathed in light is not so heavy and compact, nor has it such plasticity of appearance. His women reading are the ne plus ultra of painting; only it is astonishing that any human being can read in such a dark room. As a painter of copies, particularly copies of the artists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, he formed and perfected a school for the understanding of the old masters, as none of his contemporaries had done. The copies which he made as a young man for Count Schack in Italy and Spain are probably the best translations by the brush that have ever been executed.

He has reproduced Titian and Rubens, Velasquez and Giorgione, with equal magic; no other painter has entered into all the subtleties of their technique with such intelligence and keenness; and by the aid of these sleights of art, which he learnt as a copyist from classic masterpieces, he communicated to his own works that impress which qualifies them for the gallery and suggests the old masters with such refinement.

His pictures mark the summit of ability reached in Germany in the pictorial style of the old artists. But, at the same time, his weakness lies in this very eminence. The man who had passed through the high-school of the old masters with the greatest success was entered as a student for life, and never took the professorial chair himself. Helferich has called him the impersonated spirit of the galleries, the spirit which is centuries old. This indicates the direction which must be taken by the further development of painting.

A really new and independent art must finally emancipate itself from the Renaissance colouring, the tone of Church painting, and the chiaroscuro of pictures painted behind the variegated panes of lattice-windows. It must be evident that the methods of the old Spanish and old Dutch schools, excellent in themselves, were fully in keeping with strange scenes of martyrdom 84 or quiet interiors with peasants and fat matrons, but that they could not possibly be employed in pictures of artisans beneath the free sky, nor in those of elegant interiors of our own days, nor of pale and delicate Parisiennes attired in silks, beings of a new epoch.

A different period necessitates different methods. It is not merely that the subjects of art change, but the way in which they are handled must bear the marks of the period. The pre-Raphaelites and Menzel were the first to become alive to the problem. They were never taken captive by the tones of the early masters, but placed themselves always in conscious opposition to the artists of older ages. They protested against conventional colouring as violently as against the sweeping line taught by traditional rules of beauty.

But, as so often happens in the nineteenth century, though the English found the jewel, they did not understand how to cut it. The pre-Raphaelites had a quickening influence, in exciting a feeling for hue and tint, and rendering it keener by their own insistence on the elementary effects of colour.